Panel Cardio

Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases [1,2]. It increases the risk of atherosclerosis and infarction [3,4].

Among the leading causes are hyperglycemia, hyper-lipidemia (in particular small, low-density lipoproteins of cholesterol) and hypertension associated with diabetes [5]. On the basis of familiarity studies, it has been shown that a considerable part of the cardiovascular risk is under genetic factors control both in non-diabetic [6,7], and in diabetic subjects [8,9].

The CARDIO panel analyzes 8 genetic polymorphisms (or SNPs) whose presence is associated with a greater probability of developing diabetic cardiomyopathy. Genes with variants studied within the CARDIO panel are listed hereafter:

 

  1. ADIPOQ: gene that encodes a hormone secreted by adipocytes and regulating the catabolism of fatty acids and glucose.
  2. TNFAIP3: gene that encodes an enzyme involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
  3. TNFα: gene that encodes a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a broad spectrum of biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism and coagulation.
  4. Introne9p21: gene not encoding for proteins. These polymorphisms have been associated with the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
  5. ADIPOR1: gene that encodes the adiponectin receptor. Binding with adiponectin activates a cellular signaling pathway acting on fatty acid oxidation levels and insulin sensitivity.

Recommended for anyone who wants to know genetic predisposition to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy.

References

  1. Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(2):434-444.
  2. Beckman JA, Creager MA, Libby P. Diabetes and atherosclerosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. JAMA. 2002;287(19):2570-2581.
  3. Abbott RD, Brand FN, Kannel WB. Epidemiology of some peripheral arterial findings in diabetic men and women: experiences from the Framingham Study. Am J Med. 1990;88(4):376-381.
  4. Folsom AR, Rasmussen ML, Chambless LE, et al. Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(7):1077-1083.
  5. Warram JH, Kopczynski J, Janka HU, Krolewski AS. Epidemiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and its macrovascular complications: a basis for the development of cost-effective programs. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1997;26(1):165-188.
  6. Shea S, Ottman R, Gabrieli C, Stein Z, Nichols A. Family history as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984;4 (4):793-801.
  7. Marenberg ME, Risch N, Berkman LF, Floderus B, de Faire U. Genetic susceptibility to death from coronary artery disease in a study of twins. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(15):1041-1046.
  8. Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Rich SS. Familial aggregation of coronary artery calcium in families with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001;50(4):861-866.
  9. Lange LA, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, et al. Heritability of carotid artery intima-medial thickness in type 2 diabetes. Stroke. 2002;33(7):1876-1881.