Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases [1,2]. It increases the risk of atherosclerosis and infarction [3,4].
Among the leading causes are hyperglycemia, hyper-lipidemia (in particular small, low-density lipoproteins of cholesterol) and hypertension associated with diabetes . On the basis of familiarity studies, it has been shown that a considerable part of the cardiovascular risk is under genetic factors control both in non-diabetic [6,7], and in diabetic subjects [8,9].
The CARDIO panel analyzes 8 genetic polymorphisms (or SNPs) whose presence is associated with a greater probability of developing diabetic cardiomyopathy. Genes with variants studied within the CARDIO panel are listed hereafter:
- ADIPOQ: gene that encodes a hormone secreted by adipocytes and regulating the catabolism of fatty acids and glucose.
- TNFAIP3: gene that encodes an enzyme involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
- TNFα: gene that encodes a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a broad spectrum of biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism and coagulation.
- Introne9p21: gene not encoding for proteins. These polymorphisms have been associated with the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
- ADIPOR1: gene that encodes the adiponectin receptor. Binding with adiponectin activates a cellular signaling pathway acting on fatty acid oxidation levels and insulin sensitivity.
Recommended for anyone who wants to know genetic predisposition to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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- Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Rich SS. Familial aggregation of coronary artery calcium in families with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001;50(4):861-866.
- Lange LA, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, et al. Heritability of carotid artery intima-medial thickness in type 2 diabetes. Stroke. 2002;33(7):1876-1881.