Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease typically diagnosed in the middle-aged age . It is the most common form of diabetes and is strongly associated with overeating and obesity. However, it is estimated that the genetic component has an impact on the development of type 2 diabetes .
The T2D panel analyzes 8 genetic polymorphisms (or SNPs) whose presence is associated with a greater probability of developing diabetic nephropathy. Genes with variants studied within the T2D panel are listed hereafter:
- KCNJ11: gene that encodes a sub-unit of a protein-channel present on the pancreatic beta cells. These proteins allow the regulation of insulin flow.
- IDE: gene that encodes the enzyme for insulin degradation.
- HIGD1C: gene encoding an enzyme involved in mitochondrial cell respiration.
- HHEX: gene that encodes a transcription factor, i.e. a protein able to bind to DNA and regulate its expression.
- PDE4B: gene that encodes a protein that regulates nucleotide concentration and could play a role in signal transduction.
- CDKAL1: gene whose function is partially unknown.
- TCF7L2: gene that encodes a protein with a key role in cellular signaling.
FTO: gene that encodes a family of enzymes whose function has not yet been clarified.
Recommended for anyone who wants to know genetic predisposition to the development of type 2 diabetes. In particular: – Overweight subjects – Obese subjects – Sedentary people – People paying little attention to nutrition.
- Zimmet, P., Alberti, K. G. & Shaw, J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 414, 782–787 (2001).
- Stumvoll, M., Goldstein, B. J. & van Haeften, T. W. Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy. Lancet 365, 1333–1346 (2005).